Performance Evaluation Of Neem Extract Compared To Synthetic Pesticide Against Cotton Sucking Pests

Performance Evaluation Of Neem Extract Compared To Synthetic Pesticide Against Cotton Sucking Pests | cotton | Agriculture & Farming

ABSTRACT

The present studies were carried out to determine the bio efficacy of (TERTRANORTRIPERNOID) neem extract brand name NE-extract against sucking insect pests of cotton; Amarasca devastan Gossypum hirsutum; Thrips tabaci, Gossypum  hirsutum and Bemisia Tabaci Gossypum hirsutum. Three dose rates of NE-extract were evaluated for the control of amarasca devastan populations; in comparison to standard Confidor chemical chloronicotinyl.  NE-extract @ 2 liters per acre show statistically significant response against jassid; thrips and whitefly population’s management in comparison to standard Confidor chemical chloronicotinyl up-to 72-hours after 1st and 2nd spray.

INTRODUCTION

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the most important crop in Pakistan, which is cultivated on 3.12 million hectares and is the source of large amount of foreign exchange, contributing about 11.7 percent of value added in agriculture and about 2.9 percent of GDP [Anonymous2003]. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in Pakistan is a major source of foreign exchange. Millions of workers are engaged in the production, trade and industry of cotton. Besides, providing lint to domestic textile industry, it

Contributes 69.5% share in national oil production (Awan, 1994) Cotton seed cake is important animal feed and organic manure [Chidda 1997].

Gossypium hirsutum, also called as Upland cotton, Long Staple Cotton, or Mexican Cotton, shares more than 90% of the world’s cotton, G. barbadense, also called as Sea Island cotton, Long Staple Cotton, American Pima, or Egyptian cotton, shares 8% of the world’s cotton. Herbaceum, also known as Levant Cotton, and G. arboreum, also known as Tree Cotton, together contribute 2% of the world’s cotton (Jiang et al. 1998).

Pakistan has made  progress by increasing yield up to 641 Kg per hectare in 1992 -2000 (Jiskan, 2001). Still the yield per hectare is less than many other cotton growing countries. Pakistan being an agricultural developing country has to produce more cotton to earn more foreign exchange. With necessary changes in the structure of the cotton economy, and Government assurance of support price to the cotton growers, production of cotton in 2004-2005 seasons exceeded the target of 10.72 million bales. The actual production of cotton during 2004-05 was close to 15 million bales of 170 kgs.

Insect are main problem of agriculture that damage many crops. Among them jassid white fly and thrips are the major insects which are damaging crops badly. Thrips are major insects that feed on cotton plants. They hide in cracks and crevices of leaf buds, junctures, and   flowers. They rasp the cells and suck up the exuding sap. The leaves take on a silvery appearance after the thrips feed, and plants become stunted and deformed. Thrips are usually a pest of seedling plants but may attack plants in any stage, especially gladiolus, onions and blueberries.

Jassid is also a major insect which damage the cotton crop severely. Jassid, Amrasca devastans feed upon cotton and okra during summer season. Cotton crop sown in summer;  jassid (Amrasca devastans) shift to cotton from these hosts. Higher densities of jassid are found on cotton. Amrasca devastans is the most dominant and distributed in all the cotton growing regions; jassid causes the edges of leaves to curl downwards, the leaf become yellowish and then redden. Insecticides are commonly necessary when the jassid population reaches 2–3 nymphs/leaf.

Another sucking pest called whitefly usually occurs in groups on the undersides of leaves. Adults are tiny insects with yellowish bodies and whitish wings. Whiteflies develop rapidly in warm weather, and populations can build up quickly in situations where natural enemies are destroyed and weather is favorable. The larvae and adults suck the sap of the leaves. This causes the weakening and early   wilting of the plant resulting in reduced plant growth. Their feeding may also cause yellowing, drying, premature dropping of leaves that result in plant death.  Whitefly produces honeydews that serve as the substrates for the growth of black sooty molds on leaves and fruit. The mold reduces photosynthesis causing the poor plant growth of the plant. Whitefly is the most important carrier of plant viruses’ that causes diseases of fiber crops, vegetables, fruit trees, and ornamentals.

Different methods have been used to protect the crops from these natural enemies. Although using of pesticide is recognized as the most widely used method to solve this problem. However the health risks and environmental effects from their uses should be concerned (FEOL et. al., 2011).

The neem (Azadirachta indica) tree has long been recognized for its unique properties both against insects and in improving human health. Its chemical products have been used for centuries in many facets for human utility—as an agrochemical, pesticide, food, heating source, wood, soil amendment (Agroforestree), and significant healing agent for purportedly over 100 disease scientific literature has been surveyed in order to describe the habitat of neem and its main chemicals, in particular azadirachtin, and explore its most popular applications as a pesticide.

 Neem (Azadirachta indica) has been served as pest remedial for years in subcontinent and is still a popular practice in remote areas for stored grains in various parts of the world (Lale and Mustapha, 2000; Ahmed et al., 2001). Azadirachtin is a major compound of neem (Mordue and Blackwell, 1993) with insecticidal properties and has got the greatest attention in recent years (Parakash and Srivastava, 2008).

Neem (Azadirachta indica) show insecticidal, antifeedant, growth-regulating, and development-modifying properties,(Nugroho et al., 1999; Greger et al., 2001; D’Ambrosio and Guerriero, 2002; Nakatani et al., 2004). Neem pesticides are being manufactured and exported to various countries as a lot of research has been conducted to test the safety and efficacy of neem for use as a pesticide (Anis Joseph et al., 2010; Vethanayagam, and Rajendran, 2010).

The present study aimed to determine the bio efficacy of neem extract in comparison to synthetic compounds to reduce the insect’s pests. These insect pests are mainly controlled by synthetic chemicals but because of their several ill effects, plant derivatives are being tried by the farmers. These plant derivatives are safe to man and other non target organisms and friendly to the environment. Among many plants, the neem tree provides a good source for the control of these insect pests in the form of neem oil extracts and even seed water extracts (Jacobson, 1987). It is safe for nature makes neem superior to the other synthetic chemicals. The most important compounds in neem are Azadirachtin, which have insecticidal properties.

 MATERIALS AND METHODS

Fresh leaves of neem plant were collected and grinded and finally blended with potassium hydro oxide and made a water base formulation; at bard-yard NARC Islamabad – Pakistan. For its evaluation an experiment was conducted with randomize complete block design (RCBD) at Tibba Sultanpur Vehari district Punjab on cotton variety MNH-886BT; sown in June; 2013. The plot size for each treatment was 1500 sq feet with three replications. There were seven lines in each plot; with five treatments including a control/untreated. One synthetic insecticide was used with recommended label dose; purchased from the local market as standard to refine the effective dose rate of NE-extract at Economic Threshold Levels (ETL) of each sucking insects.

The population of the each sucking pest was counted from 20 randomly selected plants from each treatment and replication. The insect population was recorded from upper, middle and lower leaf of alternate plants; 24 hours before spray and 24 hours and 72 hours after each spray; the percent population change (increase or decrease) was calculated by using modified Abbot Formula as below.

Performance Evaluation Of Neem Extract Compared To Synthetic Pesticide Against Cotton Sucking Pests | 1 | Agriculture & Farming

Data analysis was performed by analysis of variance and means were separated using LSD test at 5% & 1% level of significance.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Amarasca devastan population levels / mortality of 24 and 72 hours after of 1st & 2nd spray are presented in table 1 & table-II respectively. Maximum decrease in mean per plant population of jassid after 24 hour of spray was recorded in plost treated with Neem Extact @ 2 liters per acre and confidor [chloronicotinyl]. This was significantly better at both cd1% and cd5% and gave mortality 82.83% & 82.15% respectively after 24 hours of spray. Both show knock down effect on adults. This study shows that Neem Extract keeps the jassid populations below ETL for 72 hours in comparison to confidor in epidemic or severe population/infestation of jassid. [See table I & II].

In case of Thrips tabaci, Gossypum  hirsutum performance was significantly good after 1st and 2nd application; Neem Extract gives significant results/mortality at cd5% 77.01%; neem extract @ 1.5 liter and 2 liter per acre keeps the thrips populations significantly below recommended ETL’s; that is 6-8 adults per leaf. The trend of population recorded also reveals that neem extract at both dose rates manages nymphal populations of thrips. [See table III & IV].

The similar trend like thrips was observed on whiteflies Bemisia Tabaci Gossypum hirsutum adults but mortality was poor of both products in comparison to jassid and thrips; [See table V & VI].

(click to enlarge images)

Performance Evaluation Of Neem Extract Compared To Synthetic Pesticide Against Cotton Sucking Pests | 21 | Agriculture & Farming
Performance Evaluation Of Neem Extract Compared To Synthetic Pesticide Against Cotton Sucking Pests | 3 | Agriculture & Farming
Performance Evaluation Of Neem Extract Compared To Synthetic Pesticide Against Cotton Sucking Pests | 4 | Agriculture & Farming

CONCLUSIONS 

(TERTRANORTRIPERNOID) Neem Extract brand name NE-extract against sucking insect pests of cotton; is a good tool used as alternatives of synthetic pesticides in order to minimize the skin cancer to women labor while picking cotton comes in contact with cotton plants impregnated with pesticides and absorb toxins in swelter conditions. Using these indigenous practices can make the agriculture more safe and economical to produce organic cotton.

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Awan, M.N. (1994) “Evaluation of some insecticidal combinations and neem extracts for the control of cotton pests”, M.Sc. (Hons.) Thesis, Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University,D.I. Khan, Pakistan, p. 92.

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by, Shumaila Munawar, M. Azhar Javaid, Faisal Nouroz

About The Author

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