Determination Of Insecticidal Action And Effective Dose Rate Of Lantana Camara Fresh Leave Extract Against Cotton Sucking Insects

 Determination Of Insecticidal Action And Effective Dose Rate Of Lantana Camara Fresh Leave Extract Against Cotton Sucking Insects | flowers | Agriculture & Farming Organic Market Classifieds Organics

ABSTRACT

This study investigated biological activity of the botanical pesticide; made from fresh leaves of Lantana Camara plant with brand name LC-Extract comprising natural chemical [Dimethylacryloxy Lantanolic]against sucking insects of cotton; Amarasca devastan Gossypum hirsutum; Thrips tabaci, Gossypum hirsutum and Bemisia Tabaci Gossypum hirsutum. Three dose rates of LC-Extract were evaluated in comparison to standard Movento chemical tetramic acid cyclic ketoenole. LC-Extract @ 1000ml per acre show significantly better bioactivity against Amarasca devastan Gossypum hirsutum and Thrips tabaci Gossypum hirsutum; in comparison to standard Movento up-to 72-hours after 1st spray [83.33 % & 90.10 %] and 2nd spray [92.49 % & 85.93 %] respectively.

INTRODUCTION

Development of insect resistance to synthetic pesticides, high operational cost and environmental pollution have created the need for developing alternative approaches. In the present study we have investigated the insecticidal activity of fresh leaves plant extract of Lantana Camara with brand name LC-Extract comprising natural chemical [Dimethylacryloxy Lantanolic] against sucking insects of cotton. The studies conducted at the international arena have shown massive external costs, associated with the use of pesticides in agriculture, to the respective societies. Pimental, et al. (1992) estimated that the external cost of pesticide use for the USA amounted to $8 billion per annum. A second attempt was made by Steiner, et al. (1995) who estimated a cost of externalities of the order of $1.3 billion to $3.6 billion for the USA economy. This was two to three time less than the externality cost estimated by Pimental and his colleagues. Waibel, et al. (1999) estimated an external cost of pesticide use amounting to at least 252 million DM per year for Ex Federal State of Germany. This cost accounted for 23 percent of the respective private cost actually paid by the producers.

This study was initiated to cut down the harmful pesticides residues and cost of production and to support nature. At the inception of Pakistan in 1947, there was practically no plant protection service in the country and economic soundness of plant protection measures was not even realized for a long time. The use of chemicals as preventive measures to reduce losses by insects and diseases was almost non-existent during 1960s. However, the “grow more” pressure rendered the traditional methods insufficient, to control the ever increasing pest problem from 1970s onwards. Consumption of pesticides in Pakistan has increased from 665 metric tonnes (MT) in 1980 (when subsidy was withdrawn) to 69897 MT in 2002. This colossal increase in pesticide consumption has not led necessarily to an increase in the yield of crops, as demonstrated by Poswal and Williamson (1998) and Ahmad and Poswal (2000). This indiscriminate use of pesticides has destroyed the bio-control agents in the agro-ecosystems and the populations of natural enemies of the insects and pests have declined up to 90 percent during the last decade (of the past century) especially, in cotton growing areas of the country [Hasnain (1999)].

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Fresh leaves of Lantana Camara were collected and grinded; blended with potassium hydro oxide and water called LC-Extract at bard-yard NARC Islamabad – Pakistan. For its evaluation an experiment was conducted in the field under randomized complete block design (RCBD); in Punjab main cotton growing area on variety MNH-886BT; sown in June; 2013; on plot size 1500 sq feet has five treatments along with a control; with three replications. Movento synthetic insecticide was used with recommended label dose rate; as standard to refine the effective dose rate of LC-Extract; applied at well established Economic Threshold Levels (ETL) of each sucking insects.

The population of the each sucking pest was counted from 20 randomly selected plants from each treatment and replication. The insect population was recorded from upper, middle and lower leaf of alternate plants; 24 hours before spray and 24 hours; 72 hours after spray.

Percent population change (increase or decrease) were calculated using modified Abbot Formula as below;

Determination Of Insecticidal Action And Effective Dose Rate Of Lantana Camara Fresh Leave Extract Against Cotton Sucking Insects | 1 | Agriculture & Farming Organic Market Classifieds Organics

Data analysis was performed by analysis of variance and means and transformed averages were used at cd5% & cd1% levels of significance.

RESULTS AND DISCCUSIONS

LC-Extract toxic properties were assessed significantly at dose rate 1000ml per acre against cotton jassids; compared with standard chemical and control treatments. The bio activity of LC-Extract significantly reduced jassid populations and mortality was greatly increased in treatments than control after 1st and 2nd spray. LC-Extract exposure @ 1000ml per acre; resulted in >90% mortality [87.33a & 90.10a] and 70% reduction [0.35 & 0.35] and kept the jassid populations below ETL in comparison to control [3.11 & 3.55]. This study showed that the LC-Extract had excellent repellent and contact toxic activities [See Table 1 & 2].

Table 1: % Mortality of Jassid after 1st Spray.

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Determination Of Insecticidal Action And Effective Dose Rate Of Lantana Camara Fresh Leave Extract Against Cotton Sucking Insects | 2-460x213 | Agriculture & Farming Organic Market Classifieds Organics

Table 2: % Mortality of Jassid after 2nd Spray.

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 Determination Of Insecticidal Action And Effective Dose Rate Of Lantana Camara Fresh Leave Extract Against Cotton Sucking Insects | 3-460x214 | Agriculture & Farming Organic Market Classifieds Organics

Similar LC-Extract toxic properties were assessed significantly at dose rate 1000ml per acre against cotton thrips; compared with standard chemical and control treatments. The bio activity of LC-Extract significantly reduced thrips populations and mortality was greatly increased in treatments than control after 1st and 2nd spray. LC-Extract exposure @ 1000ml per acre; resulted in >90% mortality [92.49a & 85.93a] and 70% reduction [1.01 & 1.78] and kept the thrips populations below ETL in comparison to control [11.96 & 12.46]. This study showed that the LC-Extract had excellent repellent and contact toxic activities [See Table 3 & 4].

Table 3: % Mortality of thrips after 1st Spray

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Table 4: % Mortality of thrips after 2nd Spray.

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LC-Extract toxic properties were assessed significantly very poor at all dose rates against cotton whitefly; compared with standard chemical and control treatments. The bio activity of LC-Extract significantly reduced whitefly populations but cannot kept the whitefly populations below ETL [See Table 5 & 6].

Table 5: % Mortality of Whitefly after 1st Spray.

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Table 6: % Mortality of Whitefly after 2nd Spray.

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Determination Of Insecticidal Action And Effective Dose Rate Of Lantana Camara Fresh Leave Extract Against Cotton Sucking Insects | 7-460x208 | Agriculture & Farming Organic Market Classifieds Organics

CONCLUSION

LC-Extract is the first step towards the in practical applications to reduce the unwanted weeds for the management of insect pests. LC-Extract represents a possible alternative to chemical insecticides in some market places. This study investigated significantly excellent biological activity of LC-Extract against cotton jassid and thrips @ 1000ml per acre and may open a new business window for pesticide companies.

REFERENCES

Abdel—Hady, N. M., A. S. Abdei—Halim, and A. M. Al—Ghadban. 2005. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the volatile oils of leaves and flowers of Lantana camara L. cultivated in Egypt. J. Egypt Soc. Parasitol. 35: 687–698. PubMed

Ahmad, I., and A. Poswal (2000) Cotton Integrated Pest Management in Pakistan: Current Status. Country Report presented in Cotton IPM Planning and Curriculum Workshop Organised by FAO, Bangkok, Thailand. February 28-March 2.

Day, M. D., C. J. Wiley, J. Playford, and M. P. Zalucki. 2003. Lantana: current management status and future prospects. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, Australia.

Dua, V. K., A. C. Pandey, and A. P. Dash. 2010. Adulticidal activity of essential oil of Lantana camara leaves against mosquitoes. Indian J. Med. Res. 131: 434–439. PubMed

Dua, V. K., A. C. Pandey, R. Singh, V. P. Sharma, and S. K. Subbarao. 2003. Isolation of repellent ingredients from Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) flowers and their repellency against Adedesmosquitoes. J. Appl. Entomol. 127: 509–511. CrossRef

Faeth, and R. Janke (1995) Incorporating Externality Costs into Productivity Measures: A Case Study Using US Agriculture. In V. Barbett and Payne and R Steiner (eds) Agricultural Sustainability: Environmental and Statistical Considerations. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Fatope, M. O., L. Salihu, S. K. Asante, and Y. Takeda. 2002. Larvicidal activity of extracts and triterpenoids from Lantana camaraPharm. Biol. 40: 564–567. CrossRef

Lipner, S. Giordane, A. Horowitz, and M. D’Amore (1993) Assessment of Environmental and Economic Impacts of Pesticide use. In D. Pimental and Ethics. Chapman and Hall, New York and London, pp. 47–84. Poswal, M. A., and S. Williamson (1998) Stepping off the Cotton

Pesticide Use Externalities in the Cotton Zones 697 Hasnian, T. (1999) Pesticide Use and Its Impact on Crop Ecologies: Issues and Options. Sustainable Development Policy Institute, Islamabad. (SDPI Working Paper Series.)

Pimental, D., H. Acquay, M. Biltonen, P. Rice, M. Silva, J. Nelson, V. Lipner, S. Giordane, A. Horowitz, and M. D’Amore (1992) Environmental and Economic Costs of Pesticide Use.

 


By: Rashid Khan, M. Azhar Javaid, Muhammad Afzal

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